Dental Materials: Properties And Manipulation, 9e (Dental Materials: Properties Amp; Manipulation (
Dental Materials: Properties And Manipulation, 9e (Dental Materials: Properties Amp; Manipulation ( >> https://bltlly.com/2sZlL0
GIC is one of the dental materials that has unique properties so that it can be useful as a restoration material and luting material. It has properties such as the ability of this material to chemically bind dentine and enamel through ion exchange mechanisms, as well as the ability to carry out ion exchange with the remaining tooth structure. This leads to the release of fluorideandotherionsinthelongtime,sothismaterialcanpreventcaries.Sinceitsdevelopment,GIChasincreasinglybecome an important part of dental practice to provide care that can maintain tooth structure, remineralize, and maintain aesthetics. GIC nano resin modification is a new development of GIC material that gives natural ionomer glass restoration, enhances aesthetics, provides strength and resistance to wear. This paper is aimed to explain the benefits of combining nano particles into glass ionomer powder in terms of the aspects of antimicrobial activity, their biocompatibility aspects, mechanical and physical aspects, as well as their composition and manipulation.
Although results such as these encourage the use of GICs, the number of brands available on the market makes it difficult to select a material for use. Variations in the powder/liquid (P/L) ratio, liquid viscosity, composition, and mixing technique may result in very different properties for these cements.55. Baig MS, Fleming GJ. Conventional glass-ionomer materials: A review of the developments in glass powder, polyacid liquid and the strategies of reinforcement. J Dent. 2015 Aug;43(8):897-912. .
The data obtained by FTIR give information about the chemical interactions that occur in the material during its setting reaction1313. Peter J. Infrared and raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation. San Diego: Elsevier; 2011. and allows to evaluate the chemical bonds ST of the GICs. After a rapid initial hardening reaction, the GICs continue to undergo changes for some time evident by the increase in mechanical properties of the cement with aging time.1414. Nicholson JW. Maturation processes in glass-ionomer dental cements. Acta Biomater Odontol Scand. 2018 Jul;4(1):63-71. The calcium polyacrylate, tends to increase as GIC powder is increased.66. Yamakami SA, Ubaldini AL, Sato F, Medina Neto A, Pascotto RC, Baesso ML. Study of the chemical interaction between a high-viscosity glass ionomer cement and dentin. J Appl Oral Sci. 2018 Jul;26(0):e20170384. -7757-2017-0384 -7757-2017-0... It shows that a chemical reaction has occurred and chemical bonds have been established. Also, the authors66. Yamakami SA, Ubaldini AL, Sato F, Medina Neto A, Pascotto RC, Baesso ML. Study of the chemical interaction between a high-viscosity glass ionomer cement and dentin. J Appl Oral Sci. 2018 Jul;26(0):e20170384. -7757-2017-0384 -7757-2017-0... proposed to analyze the dynamics of GIC setting mechanism based on the time intervals required for the GIC to achieve stability. For the KM, the ST takes up to 150 minutes, suggesting that during this time, the material is still in the process of maturation and therefore vulnerable to the mastication on it.66. Yamakami SA, Ubaldini AL, Sato F, Medina Neto A, Pascotto RC, Baesso ML. Study of the chemical interaction between a high-viscosity glass ionomer cement and dentin. J Appl Oral Sci. 2018 Jul;26(0):e20170384. -7757-2017-0384 -7757-2017-0...
It can be concluded that different brands of GICs behave differently in terms of mechanical properties, especially due to variations in P/L ratio, viscosities and manipulation techniques. It was possible to notice a correlation among the properties evaluated: the materials that presented higher CS values usually presented higher DTS, FS and KH as well. GICs with longer stabilization times of chemical bonds are generally stronger, and the ST value obtained from FTIR is useful in predicting the strength of the majority of GICs tested.
Deontological theories are normative theories. They do not presupposeany particular position on moral ontology or on moral epistemology.Presumably, a deontologist can be a moral realist of either thenatural (moral properties are identical to natural properties) ornonnatural (moral properties are not themselves natural propertieseven if they are nonreductively related to natural properties)variety. Or a deontologist can be an expressivist, a constructivist, atranscendentalist, a conventionalist, or a Divine command theoristregarding the nature of morality. Likewise, a deontologist can claimthat we know the content of deontological morality by directintuition, by Kantian reflection on our normative situation, or byreaching reflective equilibrium between our particular moral judgmentsand the theories we construct to explain them (theories ofintuitions).
In this research, the EN-loaded injectable PUHA cements for BAI prevention were synthesized and characterized by physiochemical and biological experiment in vitro. The antibacterial cements showed a good viscosity and injectability by shear-thinning behavior for convenient manipulation. The addition of EN drug speeded up the conversion of monomers and increased the cross-linking and mechanical properties that enhanced the stability of the cured EN-loaded cements, which is benefit to avoid the inflammation reaction caused by residual monomers. All drug-loaded PUHA cements showed a perfect antibacterial property, while the UAE-3 group did not present good biological response of cell proliferation and differentiation because of high drug dose loading. From the above, the UAE-2 is the promising substitute as anti-infection bone cement with suitable physical properties, antibacterial and in vitro biological properties, which in vivo efficiency would be evaluated in next study.
Metal ceramic restorations is a tooth and/or implant retained fixed dental prosthesis; it uses a metalsubstructure upon which ceramic veneer is fused.It does not possess the low mechanical properties of porcelain; low temperature porcelains are usedto manufacture metal ceramic dentures 2b1af7f3a8